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Matrix: A Realtime Object Identification and Registration Method for Augmented Reality

The Matrix method (also known as "CyberCode") is a new technique for augmented reality that identifies real world objects and estimates their coordinate systems simultaneously. The 2D matrix code used in our method is a square shaped barcode that can identify a large number of objects. It is also used as a landmark to register information on the real world images. Since matrix codes are printable, it is virtually costless to produce and attach codes on various kinds of real world objects. We have developed an AR system based on this method, and demonstrated several potential applications.

Demo movies MPEG (1996 version) MPEG


  1. Jun Rekimoto, "Augmented Reality using the 2D matrix code" Workshop on Interactive Systems and Software (WISS'96) (in Japanese). PDF SLIDE
  2. Jun Rekimoto, "Matrix: A Realitime Object Identification and Registration Method for Augmented Reality" APCHI'98 PDF

  1. Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. "Eye of Judgement" (PlayStation3) is based on this technology. For the related articles, please refer to here , among many others. (2006)
  2. Akihiro Utada, "The Book of the Future: A Fusion of Paper and Cyberspace" The Future of the Printed World, Jan, 1999.
  3. Sony "PictureBook" (VAIO C1), a notebook computer with a smal CCD camera, provides a "3D picture card", based on this technology (1999).

How Matrix Method Works

The concept of the Matrix method

Original Image.


Connected Components.

Code Fitting and Coordinate System estimation.


A dinosaur skeleton with 3D annotations.

Triceratops in the Lab. (The matrix code is spreaded on the floor)

A 3D molecular model pops-up from the book.

An annotated circuit board.

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